Useful info about Peru


National name: Republica del Peru
Capital city: Lima, 8.769 million
President:Pedro Plablo Kuczynski (2016)
Prime Minister:Fernando Zavala (2016)
Land area: 494,208 sq mi (1,279,999 sq km); total area: 496,223 sq mi (1,285,220 sq km)
Population (2012 est.):
30 814 175 (growth rate: 1.92%); birth rate: 19.13/1000
Infant Mortality rate: 21.3/1000, life expectancy: 72.73
Monetary unit: Sol (2016)
Languages: Spanish, Qu©chua (both official); Aymara; many minor Amazonian languages
Ethnicity/race: Amerindian 45%, Mestizo 37%, White 15%, Black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
Religion: Roman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other%, unspecified or none 2.9% (2007 est.)

 

Etymology

The word Peru is derived from Bir, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel Panama, in the early 16th century. When his lands were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were in the southernmost part of the New World not yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to Bir or Peru. The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulac in de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after the Peruvian War of Independence.

Geography

Peru covers 1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq mi). It borders Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the south and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The Andes Mountains run parallel to the Pacific Ocean; they define the three regions traditionally used to describe the country geographically. The costa (coast), to the west, is a narrow plain, largely arid except for valleys created by seasonal rivers. The sierra (highlands) is the region of the Andes; it includes the Altiplano plateau as well as the highest peak of the country, the 6,768 m (22,205 ft) Huascarán. The third region is the selva (jungle), a wide expanse of flat terrain covered by the Amazon rainforest that extends east. Almost 60% of the country’s area is located within this region.

Climate

Climate varies according to the area. On the coast, winter lasts from June to September. During this period, the mountainous areas are often sunny during the day but cold at night.

Culture

Peruvian culture is primarily rooted in Amerindian and Spanish traditions, though it has also been influenced by various African, Asian, and European ethnic groups. Peruvian artistic traditions date back to the elaborate pottery, textiles, jewelry, and sculpture of Pre-Inca cultures. The Incas maintained these crafts and made architectural achievements including the construction of Machu Picchu. Baroque dominated colonial art, though modified by native traditions. During this period, most art focused on religious subjects; the numerous churches of the era and the paintings of the Cusco School are representative. Art stagnated after independence until the emergence of Indigenismo in the early 20th century. Since the 1950s, Peruvian art has been eclectic and shaped by both foreign and local art trends.

Electricity:

220 volts AC, 60Hz. (110 volts AC is available in most 4- and 5-star hotels).
Entry Requirements
Passport needed. Visas are required only from the following countries: Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Bulgaria, Russia, Pakistan, India, and China. Vaccines are necessary only if travelers are visiting areas where there is an epidemic such as yellow fever and hepatitis B.
Language
Spanish is the official language of Peru. Although other Andean regions predominant language is Quechua.
Currency
The local currency is the Nuevo Sol. At the time of this writing, the exchange rate (which can fluctuate daily) was 2.85 sols to the US dollar.
Tipping
Most restaurants add a 10 percent service charge to the bill, but some do not.  The total tip should be about 15 percent.

What to bring 
Regardless of the time of year and place it is advisable to visit during your stay in the peru carry warm clothes, baggy pants, cotton shirts sports footwear hiking shoes a good sunscreen and hat.

Health

If you going to travel to the Andes, it is almost impossible to avoid altitude sickness or mountain sickness for not much feel these altitude sickness rest on the first day of his arrival, eat light meals, drink plenty of fluids, coca tea can you help a lot, have lemon drops, if you have heart disease consult your doctor before making the trip.
If you are traveling to the jungle is recommended that you get vaccinated against yellow fever 10 days before your trip we recommend at least protect yourself from mosquito bites and the use of repellents and medications, consult your doctor before traveling.


CUSCO: Information

Qusqu or Qosqo, Cusco: is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range. It is the capital of the Cusco Region as well as the Cusco Province. In 2009, the city had a population of 348,935 which was triple the figure of 20 years ago. Located on the eastern end of the Knot of Cusco, its elevation is around 3,400 m (11,200 ft).
Cusco was the site of the historic capital of the Inca Empire and was declared a World Heritage Site in 1983 by UNESCO. It is a major tourist destination and receives almost 2 million visitors a year. It is designated as the Historical Capital of Peru by the Constitution of Peru.
What do you need to move around Cusco.
Cusco Tourist Ticket (Boleto Turistico) this ticket costs 130 soles approx. US$47 (half price S/. 70 for students with ASIC Card) and is valid for 10 days.
The best way to get entry tickets for almost all sites in the Cusco area and Sacred Valley is to purchase a Boleto Turistico.
The sights are divided into three circuits. Each circuit can be purchased separately or all together as a General Ticket.
Where to eat in Cusco.

Greens  Organic    Vegetarian Food   Santa Catalina angosta  Street 135 2° floor
Govinda                 Vegetarian Food            Espaderos Street Plaza de armas
Deva                      Vegetarian and Tipical Food        San Agustín Street 280
La Yerbateria          Vegetarian Food    Santa Teresa Street
El Cholandes        Vegetarian – Asian – Ductch – Indian   Choquechaca Street 188
The Meeting Place    Vegetarian-American food and Coofe Plaza San Blas

Map Café   Coofe  Bar,  Art Museo   Plaza Nazarenas 231
Pacha Papa            Tipical Food, Meat, Guinea Pigs  Plazoleta de San Blas
Inka Grill                Tipical Food, Meats and Guinea Pigs Portal de Panes Plaza de Armas
El truco     Tipical Food and criolla   Plaza Nazarenas
Limo          Tipical Foods, Meats and fishes  Portal de Carnes  Plaza de Armas
Paititi        Tipical and International Foods Plaza de Armas
Tunupa     Tipical and Criolla foods  plaza de armas

Where to shop in Cusco.

In these markets you will find handmade alpaca fiber textiles and crafts at a very low price.
Centro de Textiles Cusco                   Avenida el Sol  603
Centro Artesanal Cusco                      Avenida el Sol (Final)
Craft Fairs in the Sacred Valley  Pisaq, Ollantaytabo and Chinchero

What can i do in my free time in cusco

San Pedro Market                                           Plaza San Pedro
Museo Inka                                                    Cuesta del Almirante Plaza de Armas
Barrio de artesanos San Blas                 San Blas                                             

Theme Park of South American Camelids: AWANACANCHA , is located 23 km from the Cusco City in the district of Taray.
Exhibition Alpacas, Llamas, Vicuna in their natural habitat and conducting tissue extracted fibers of these animals, it is also possible to see agricultural terraces of the Inca and flora of the area.
How to get: By car 45 minutes
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Botanical Garden Plaza San Francisco: It includes 250 taxa, indicating the Latin name, synonyms Latinos, common names, botanical family, plant longevity, with the number of crops, their origin. Food and medicinal plants.
South Valley of Cusco: Tipon archaeological complex, Andahuaylillas  and Pikillaqta. This circuit will take you through beautiful natural landscapes, Inca architecture in Tipon, architecture pre - Inca Wari Pikillacta,  Andahuaylillas visiting its beautiful chapel, known as the "Sistine Chapel of America"
How to get: By car 1 hour

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